Metabolism of substance and energy
plays an important role in energy and substance metabolism when it enters the body and becomes NAD +.
Improvement of type 2 diabetes mellitus
Type 2 diabetes is an epidemic in today's society. Studies suggest that high calories and sedentary lifestyles destroy our body's natural metabolic pathways for sugar. One mechanism is that the intake of high calorie foods destroys the synthesis and metabolism of NAD +. Supplementation of NMN can increase insulin sensitivity and improve age-induced glucose intolerance.
DNA repair enzyme
NAD + is the sole substrate of ADP ribosyltransferase or ribosylpolymerase (PARP). PARP is located in the nuclei of various cells. When free radicals and oxidants damage cells, DNA single strands break and PARP is activated. Activated PARP uses coenzyme I (NAD+) as a substrate to transfer ADP ribosyl groups to target proteins and produce nicotinamide (Nam). These target proteins are involved in DNA repair, gene expression, cell cycle progression, cell survival, chromosome reconstruction and gene stability. Studies have shown that PARP plays an active role in the treatment of cancer and plays a multifunctional role in various cancer-related processes, including DNA repair, recombination, cell proliferation or cell death. Research certification found that supplementary NMN repaired radiation damage to animals, making the damage unintentional.
Ribose synthase of cyclic ADP
NAD + is the only substrate of cyclic ADP ribose synthases (CADPR synthases) cyclic ribose polymerase (CADP synthases). Cyclic ADP ribose synthase consists of a pair of extracellular enzymes, called lymphocyte antigens CD38 and CD157, which use NAD as substrates to produce cyclic ADP ribose, which is the second messenger of cell cycle and insulin.
Deacetylated NAD + is the only substrate of longevity protein lysine deacetylase Sirtuins. Sirtuins are composed of 275 amino acids in mammals, including seven different subtypes (SIRY1-SIRT7), SIRT3-SIRT5 in mitochondria, SITR6 and SITR7 in the nucleus and SITR1 in cells. Sirtuins play an important role in cell stress resistance, energy metabolism, cell apoptosis and aging, so they are called longevity proteins. SIRT1 can activate PARP-1 to repair DNA double strands efficiently. SIRT13-5 can be used as a tumor suppressor.