has proven to be a" magic drug "beyond treating diabetes." Metformin has been the mainstay of type 2 diabetes treatment for the past 20 years and is now the drug of choice in the United States and around the world for the treatment of this condition. Metformin, marketed in the United States since 1995, is an attractive treatment for both clinicians and patients. The study found that the drug was safe and effective, and the one-month generic drug supply price was around $ 4, a choice that could be affordable.
A series of studies have shown that metformin has other effects besides the treatment of diabetes. Metformin has the best first-line treatment. "Metformin is the drug of choice by all standards." Howard University College of Pharmacy professor in an article published in the journal Endocrinology states: "It is rare for all experts to agree on certain issues. After a time test Metformin proved to be effective and inexpensive, and metformin existed long before it entered the United States. "
New research shows that metformin is promising in the treatment or prevention of a range of diseases in people with type 2 diabetes. Metformin has cardioprotective effects in diabetic patients and is beneficial in stabilizing congestive heart failure. In addition, the drug also helps improve pregnancy rates in polycystic ovary syndrome, provides benefits for breast and prostate cancer, and provides neuroprotection to reduce the risk of dementia and stroke. Researchers are currently exploring whether metformin targets and delays aging. Reduce the incidence of age-related diseases.
The director of the Institute of Endocrinology and Aging, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, said he hopes to work with the FDA to conduct a metformin trial of the NIH / American Association for Aging Research, which targets metformin for the treatment of aging, which will prove The drug has the ability to delay the onset of complications associated with aging. Thus shortening the onset of life time. "If metformin slows down aging, its management should be linked to a general reduction in age-related illness, not just a single disease that reduces morbidity."
First, let us review the history and mechanism of metformin, which dates back to the Middle Ages, when herbal extracts first came from oriental goat beans, the active ingredient of this plant, guanidine, originally isolated in the 19th century and later synthesized Less toxic metformin. The drug was approved in France and England in 1957 and 1958, respectively, but was not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in the United States after 37 years. Although initially drug resistant, the FDA has recently been more inclined to consider other indications of metformin through tests such as metformin.
Metformin has been shown to reduce hepatic glucose secretion, reduce intestinal absorption of glucose, and improve insulin sensitivity by reducing peripheral glucose uptake and utilization. And sulfonylureas, metformin does not cause hypoglycemia or hyperinsulinemia; insulin secretion remains unchanged, while fasting insulin levels and daily plasma insulin levels may be reduced. Metformin is most commonly used to treat type 2 diabetes, either alone or in combination with other medications, but can also be used to turn off the label as a treatment for pre-diabetic, gestational diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome.
"There are other labels, we do not have strong evidence, but there may be potential, such as HIV-related lipodystrophy," For atypical antipsychotic patients, they may encounter some insulin resistance Side effects. Therefore, these patients may consider using metformin. It may also play a role in the metabolic syndrome and is studied in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, although pioglitazone may have a stronger effect.
What are the unexpected effects of metformin?
Researchers at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston reviewed patients with obesity in recent years, including people who tried to change their lifestyle and failed to get the slimming pill. Eventually, metformin combined with lorcaserin helped to lose 50 pounds of body weight. These findings show that the use of metformin in specific patients is effective in counteracting the weight gain of antipsychotics. In spite of this, metformin slimming effects are sometimes surprising.
Other evidence suggests that metformin may maintain cognitive function and reduce mortality. In a longitudinal study of longitudinal aging in 365 men over the age of 55 in Singapore, the researchers evaluated the relationship between metformin and cognitive impairment and found that the use of metformin versus longitudinal analysis Correlation of cognitive impairment is inversely proportional to the medication time of more than 6 years of cognitive impairment is the lowest.
Cancer related mortality
Epidemiological studies have shown that the use of metformin is associated with a decrease in cancer morbidity and mortality. The researchers said that although diabetes patients have a higher risk of colon cancer, metformin reduced the risk by 27%. Metformin, which significantly affects AMP-activated protein kinases, thus affecting mitochondrial energy production, may deprive malignant, energy-inefficient cells and thus reduce their potential growth rate. "Although we can not prove that metformin blocks cancer progression, studies have shown its preventive effect. "