So far, antibiotics are still the basic means to treat the animal and human diseases. However, there is definite evidence that the abuse of antibiotics can lead to widespread drug resistance of bacterial pathogens. The EU has banned the use of antibiotics, and livestock and aquatic products sold to the EU and such products must be tested for antibiotics. Therefore, it is an urgent problem to find a new and safe antibacterial agent instead of antibiotics.
Antiviral peptides (AMPS) is a kind of peptide material encoded by genes and synthesized by a ribosome, which is an important part of innate immune response. As a new antibacterial agent, antimicrobial peptides not only has spectrum anti-bacterial activity, but also anti-fungal, virus and parasite activity, and even has anti-tumour and iron metabolism regulation function. Because of its unique antibacterial mechanism, it is not easy to produce drug resistance, which makes it one of the main candidate antimicrobial agents to replace antibiotics. Especially in the feed industry, more and more manufacturers hope to use safe and non-toxic antimicrobial agents, such as antimicrobial peptides as feed additives.
In China, the antimicrobial peptides feed additive that has been used in the breeding industry is sericin. Some studies have shown that the growth performance and feed conversion rate of weaned piglets were compared by adding tiancansu in the basic diet instead of antibiotics. The results show that tiancansu can promote the growth performance of piglets to a certain extent, and can significantly improve feed conversion rate and reduce feed cost. In addition, antimicrobial peptides as a feed additive can improve the immunity of animals. After weaned piglets stole tiancansu for 13 days, they took a certain amount of E.coli orally and tested some immune indexes. Results the content of IgA and IgG in the serum of weaned piglets fed with tiancansu was higher than that of the control group, and the content of IL-1 β and IL-6 was also significantly increased (P < 0.05).
Although some progress has been made in the application of antimicrobial peptides as feed additives, it needs further research and discussion. It is believed that in the near future, antimicrobial peptides, as a new generation of biological agents, will play an important role in various fields such as aquaculture production.