Recurrent multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease that occurs in the central nervous system and causes inflammation and tissue damage that destroy the normal functioning of the brain, optic nerve, and spinal cord. The main onset age of MS is 20 to 40 years old, which is the cause of disability in young and middle-aged people after trauma. MS affects about 400,000 people in the United States. There are three types of MS in adults: RRMS, SPMS and PPMS. In children, up to 98% of MS cases are RRMS. The progression of MS leads to increased loss of body and cognitive functions (eg memory). This has a great negative impact on the lives of MS patients. It is estimated that 3-5% of MS patients are children, but no specific treatment for this group is available, so there is a significant medical need for this group.
Glatiramer Acetate is one of the effective drug in the world. Besides, Gilenya is the first oral medication approved once daily to treat recurrent MS. It acts as a first-line disease remission (DMT) that helps to alleviate physical problems caused by RRMS and reduces the frequency of MS attacks (relapses) and also protects patients from injections because of oral medication. The mechanism by which Gilenya plays a role in MS patients remains to be fully elucidated, but may involve the effect of reducing lymphocyte migration to the CNS. There is ample evidence that T cells play a central role in mediating and regulating MS pathology. It is currently believed that Gilenya may decrease the number of immune cells that enter the central nervous system and reduce the number of MS attacks and the extent of their effects on the body by binding to T cells so that they reside in the lymph nodes.
Although childhood MS patients experience a relapse of about two to three times that of adult patients, no disease-modifying therapy for children has been approved yet. Hopefully this treatment regimen for adult patients with relapsed MS will be brought to this young patient population as soon as possible.